The application of steam power to the industrial processes of printing supported a massive expansion of newspaper
and popular book publishing, which reinforced rising literacy and demands for mass political participation.
During the Industrial Revolution, the life expectancy of children increased dramatically. The percentage of the children
born in London who died before the age of five decreased from 74.5% in 1730 - 1749 to 31.8% in 1810 - 1829. Besides, there
was a significant increase in worker wages during the period 1813-1913.
The Industrial Revolution had significant impacts on the structure of society. Prior to its rise, the public and private
spheres held strong overlaps; work was often conducted through the home and thus was shared in many cases by wife and husband.
However, during this period the two began to separate, with work and home life considered quite distinct from one another.
This shift made it necessary for one partner to maintain the home and care for children. Women, holding the distinction of
being able to breastfeed, thus more often maintained the home, with men making up a sizeable fraction of the workforce. With
much of the family income coming from men, then, their power in relation to women increased further, with the latter often
dependent on men's income. This had enormous impacts on the defining of gender roles and was effectively the model for what
was later termed the traditional family.
However, the need for a large workforce and resulting wages also enticed many women into industrial work, where they were
often paid much less in relation to men. This was mostly because of a lack of organised labour among women to push for benefits
and wage increases, and in part to ensure women's continued dependence on a man's income to survive